High Blood Pressure ( Hypertension ): Causes, Symptoms, Prevention and How to Fight It

Hypertension, also known as high blood pressure, is a common condition that affects about one in four adults worldwide.

It is a major risk factor for heart disease, stroke, kidney failure, and other serious health problems. Hypertension is often called the silent killer because it usually has no symptoms until it causes damage to vital organs.

In this article, we will explore the causes, symptoms, and prevention of hypertension, and how you can lower your blood pressure naturally and effectively.

What is Hypertension and How is it Measured?

Blood pressure is the force of blood pushing against the walls of your arteries, which carry blood from your heart to the rest of your body.

Blood pressure is measured in millimetres of mercury (mmHg) and expressed as two numbers: systolic and diastolic.

Systolic pressure is the pressure when your heart beats and pumps blood, and diastolic pressure is the pressure when your heart rests between beats.

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), normal blood pressure is below 120/80 mmHg, and hypertension is defined as blood pressure equal to or above 140/90 mmHg.

However, some people may have different thresholds depending on their age, medical history, and other factors. Therefore, it is important to check your blood pressure regularly and consult your doctor if you have any concerns.

Causes Hypertension/High-blood-pressure

There are many factors that can contribute to hypertension, some of which are modifiable and some of which are not.

Some of the common causes of hypertension are:

Genetics: Some people inherit genes that make them more prone to hypertension, such as those that affect the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, which regulates blood pressure and fluid balance.

  • Age: As you get older, your blood vessels become less elastic and more resistant to blood flow, which increases your blood pressure.
  • Ethnicity: Some ethnic groups, such as African Americans, Hispanics, and Asians, have higher rates of hypertension than others, due to genetic, environmental, and cultural factors.
  • Obesity: Excess body weight puts extra strain on your heart and blood vessels, which raises your blood pressure.
  • Salt intake: Eating too much salt can cause your body to retain water, which increases your blood volume and blood pressure.
  • Alcohol consumption: Drinking too much alcohol can interfere with the function of your kidneys, which regulate blood pressure and fluid balance.
  • Smoking: Smoking damages your blood vessels and reduces the amount of oxygen in your blood, which makes your heart work harder and increases your blood pressure.
  • Stress: Chronic stress can trigger the release of hormones that constrict your blood vessels and raise your blood pressure.
  • Lack of physical activity: Being sedentary can cause your blood vessels to lose their flexibility and responsiveness, which increases your blood pressure.
  • Other medical conditions: Some diseases and medications can cause or worsen hypertension, such as diabetes, kidney disease, thyroid disorders, sleep apnoea, and oral contraceptives.

Symptoms of Hypertension.

As mentioned earlier, hypertension usually has no symptoms until it causes damage to vital organs.

However, some people may experience some signs and symptoms of hypertension, such as:

  • Headache
  • Dizziness
  • Blurred vision
  • Chest pain
  • Shortness of breath
  • Nosebleed
  • Palpitations
  • Nausea
  • Fatigue

If you have any of these symptoms, especially if they are severe or persistent, you should seek medical attention immediately, as they may indicate a hypertensive crisis, which is a life-threatening condition that requires emergency treatment.

How to Prevent and Treat Hypertension.

The good news is that hypertension can be prevented and treated with lifestyle changes and medication. Some of the effective ways to lower your blood pressure are:

Lose weight:

 If you are overweight or obese, losing even a few kilograms can make a significant difference in your blood pressure.

Aim for a healthy body mass index (BMI) of 18.5 to 24.9 kg/m2, and a waist circumference of less than 102 cm for men and less than 88 cm for women.

Reduce salt intake:

Limit your salt intake to less than 5 grams per day, which is equivalent to about one teaspoon.

Avoid processed foods, fast foods, and canned foods, which are high in sodium, and use herbs, spices, lemon, vinegar, or other low-sodium alternatives to flavour your food.

Moderate alcohol consumption:

If you drink alcohol, do so in moderation, which means no more than one drink per day for women and two drinks per day for men.

One drink is defined as 12 ounces of beer, 5 ounces of wine, or 1.5 ounces of liquor. Avoid binge drinking, which can cause a sudden spike in your blood pressure.

Quit smoking:

If you smoke, quit as soon as possible, as smoking is one of the worst things you can do for your blood pressure and overall health.

Seek help from your doctor, pharmacist, or a smoking cessation program, and use nicotine replacement products, such as patches, gums, or lozenges, to ease your withdrawal symptoms.

Manage stress:

Find healthy ways to cope with stress, such as meditation, yoga, breathing exercises, hobbies, music, or social support.

 Avoid negative coping strategies, such as overeating, drinking, smoking, or using drugs, which can worsen your blood pressure and health.

Exercise regularly:

Aim for at least 150 minutes of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise per week, such as brisk walking, jogging, cycling, swimming, or dancing.

You can also do some strength training, such as lifting weights, two or three times per week, to improve your muscle mass and metabolism.

Exercise can lower your blood pressure by improving your blood circulation, heart function, and weight control.

Take medication:

 If lifestyle changes are not enough to control your blood pressure, your doctor may prescribe you some medication, such as diuretics, beta-blockers, calcium channel blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), or others.

Follow your doctor’s instructions and take your medication as prescribed, and do not stop or change your dosage without consulting your doctor first.


Hypertension is a serious condition that can lead to many complications and even death if left untreated.

However, you can prevent and treat hypertension with lifestyle changes and medication, and enjoy a healthier and longer life.

Remember to check your blood pressure regularly and consult your doctor if you have any questions or concerns.

You can also use our website to search for more information and resources on hypertension and related topics. Stay healthy and happy!


  • How Genetics Affects Your Blood Pressure and How to Fight Back: Roles of Genetics on Hypertension.
  • How Regular Exercise Can Impact and Improve Blood Pressure Levels: Controlling High blood Pressure Drug Free
  • DASH Diet: Save Your Life by Lowering Your Blood Pressure Naturally
  • How to Interpret Your Blood Pressure Readings: A Guide to Understanding  Blood Pressure Chart Readings

Leave a Comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

1 thought on “High Blood Pressure ( Hypertension ): Causes, Symptoms, Prevention and How to Fight It”

Scroll to Top