System Design Tutorial & Roadmap for Aspiring Tech Architects

Learning System design can often feel like navigating through an whole Library. But with this comprehensive tutorial and roadmap, we aim to guide you through the twists and turns, ensuring you emerge as a confident and skilled tech architect.

System Design is the process of crafting an architecture for various components, interfaces, and modules of a system, along with supplying the necessary data that aids in the implementation of these elements within systems.

System Design involves creating the architecture, components, and interfaces for a system to fulfill end-user needs. It’s a crucial skill for tech interviews, with major companies like Facebook, Amazon, Google, and Apple probing candidates on System Design topics such as scalability, load-balancing, and caching.

This tailored System Design tutorial is crafted to efficiently guide you from the fundamentals to advanced concepts, ensuring a comprehensive understanding of System Design.

Remember System design is an integral part of software engineering that involves creating the architecture of a system to meet specific requirements. It’s not just about the code; it’s about understanding the bigger picture and making decisions that will affect the scalability, reliability, and performance of the application.

System Design Tutorial & Roadmap Overview

¡》The Importance of System Design

In technology, system design stands as the backbone of any robust software application. It’s the blueprint that ensures all components work together harmoniously, providing a seamless experience for users and a stable platform for developers.

¡¡》Starting with the Basics

Before diving into complex structures, it’s crucial to grasp the basics. This includes understanding fundamental concepts like load balancing, caching, data partitioning, and more. These are the building blocks that will support your growth as a system designer.

¡¡¡》Advanced Topics

Once you have a solid foundation, you can move on to more advanced topics. This includes mastering distributed systems, microservices architecture, and database design. Each of these areas requires a deep dive to fully comprehend their impact on system design.

¡V》Practical Application

Theory is important, but practice makes perfect. We’ll walk you through real-world scenarios and case studies that demonstrate the principles of system design in action. This hands-on approach will solidify your learning and prepare you for the challenges ahead.

V》Tools and Resources

No architect works without tools, and the same goes for system designers. We’ll introduce you to the essential tools and resources that will aid in your design process, from UML diagrams to architecture frameworks.

》Building Your Roadmap

Every journey needs a map, and your path to becoming a system design expert is no different. We’ll help you create a personalized roadmap that outlines the steps you need to take, the skills you need to acquire, and the milestones you should aim for.

Steps for approaching this system design tutorial

Here’s a rewritten version of the steps for system design, maintaining the structure and keywords while ensuring the language is user-friendly:

1. Grasping the Essentials: It’s crucial to start by fully understanding what the system needs to do and the limitations it might have. This means collecting all the details about what problems it needs to solve, how fast it needs to work, how much it can grow, and how secure it must be.

2. Mapping Out the Main Parts: Figure out the key parts of the system and how they’ll work together. This involves seeing how each part connects to others and their role in making the system work as a whole.

3. Selecting the Right Tech: With a clear picture of what’s needed and what each part does, pick the best technology for the job. This could mean deciding on the right hardware, software, databases, programming languages, and other tools.

4. Crafting Connections: Lay out how the different parts of the system will talk to each other. This covers setting up APIs, deciding on communication protocols, and agreeing on data formats.

5. Sketching the Data Blueprint: Work on the system’s data blueprint, which includes planning out the database structure, organizing data files, and mapping out how data moves around in the system.

6.Planning for Growth and Speed: Think about how the design will handle growing user numbers and data, and how fast it needs to perform. Look at ways to distribute the load, store data smartly, and fine-tune the database for better performance.

7. Testing the Blueprint: Check that the design works well by trying it out with realistic scenarios and data. If you find any problems, tweak the design to fix them.

8. Launching and Upkeep: Put the system into action and keep it running smoothly. This includes fixing any issues that come up, making updates, and adding new features to meet users’ needs over time.

Complete System Design Tutorial

1. Basics of System Design

  • What is System Design?
  • Functional vs Non Functional Requirements
  • What are the components of System Design?
  • System Design Life Cycle | SDLC (Design)
  • Structured Analysis and Structured Design (SA/SD)
  • System Design Strategy
  • Database Sharding – System Design Interview Concept
  • System Design – Horizontal and Vertical Scaling
  • Load Balancer in System Design
  • Routing requests through Load Balancer
  • Latency and Throughput in System Design
  • Object-Oriented Analysis and Design
  • Difference between Structured and Object-Oriented Analysis

2. Scalability in System Design

  • What is Scalability and How to achieve it – Learn System Design
  • Which Scalability approach is right for our Application? | System Design
  • Primary Bottlenecks that Hurt the Scalability of an Application | System Design

3. Databases in Designing Systems

  • Which Database to Choose while designing a system – SQL or NoSQL
  • File and Database Storage Systems in System Design
  • Database Replication in System Design
  • Block, Object, and File Storage
  • Normalization Process in DBMS
  • Denormalization in Databases

4. High Level Design(HLD)

  • What is High Level Design – Learn System Design
  • Availability in System Design
  • Consistency in System Design
  • Reliability in System Design
  • CAP Theorem
  • Difference between Process and Thread
  • Difference between Concurrency and Parallelism
  • Load Balancer
  • Consistent Hashing
  • Content Delivery Network(CDN) in System Design
  • Caching in System Design
  • Cache Eviction Policies
  • Message Queues
  • Communication Protocols In System Design
  • Network Protocols and Proxies in System Design
  • Unified Modeling Language (UML)

5. Low Level Design(LLD)

  • What is Low Level Design or LLD
  • Data Structures and Algorithms for System Design
  • Event-Driven Architecture
  • Difference between Authentication and Authorization
  • What is API Gateway
  • What is Data Encryption?
  • Design Patterns
  • Code Optimization Techniques
  • Unit Testing
  • Integration Testing
  • CI/CD: Continuous Integration and Continuous Delivery
  • Introduction to Modularity and Interfaces In System Design
  • Data Partitioning Techniques in System Design
  • Class Diagrams | UML

6. Testing and Quality Assurance in System Design

  • Types of Software Testing
  • Software Quality Assurance
  • Security Testing
  • Essential Security Measures in System Design

6. Interview Questions & Answers of System Design

  • Top 10 System Design Interview Questions and Answers
  • Most Commonly Asked System Design Interview Problems/Questions
  • System Design – URL Shortening Service
  • Design Dropbox – A System Design Interview Question
  • Design Twitter – A System Design Interview Question
  • System Design Netflix – A Complete Architecture
  • System Design of Uber App – Uber System Architecture
  • Design BookMyShow – A System Design Interview Question
  • Designing Facebook Messenger | System Design Interview
  • Designing Whatsapp Messenger | System Design
  • Designing Instagram | System Design

6. Tips

  • How to Crack System Design Round in Interviews?
  • 5 Tips to Crack Low-Level System Design Interviews
  • 5 Common System Design Concepts for Interview Preparation
  • 6 Steps To Approach Object-Oriented Design Questions in Interview

Advantages of System Design:

  • Enhanced Clarity: System design serves to demystify the system’s needs and limitations, fostering a deeper grasp of the challenges at hand.
  • Boosted Efficiency: Tailoring a system with the right tech and streamlined data structures elevates its efficiency and overall performance.
  • Scalability: It ensures that a system can evolve to meet future demands and adapt to new requirements.
  • Ease of Maintenance: Clear interfaces and data models simplify the upkeep of a system, making updates and modifications more straightforward.
  • Effective Communication: It aids in conveying the system’s blueprint to all involved parties, ensuring it aligns with their needs and visions.

Disadvantages of System Design:

  • Time Intensive: Crafting a system’s design can be a lengthy affair, particularly for intricate systems.
  • Costly: The expenses can mount up, especially when extensive research, prototyping, and testing are required.
  • Expertise Dependent: It demands considerable technical know-how, spanning hardware, software, databases, and data structures.
  • Rigidity: Post-design, it becomes challenging to introduce changes, especially if the system is already live and operational.

If you Prefer a course,

Why look further when our Free System Design course offers all you need in one comprehensive program! Enroll in our System Design program today, and our advisors will be in touch to provide you with all the guidance and support you need.


System design is a challenging yet rewarding field that requires dedication and continuous learning. With this tutorial and roadmap, you’re well on your way to becoming a tech architect who can design systems that stand the test of time and scale.


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