Essential Blockchain, Cryptocurrency and Web3 Terms You Should Know: The Ultimate Blockchain Glossary

Technology is evolving rapidly and impacting our lives in various ways.  One of the most sensitive areas are the evolving landscape of blockchain, cryptocurrency, and Web3.

Whether you’re a seasoned investor, a tech enthusiast, or just curious about the decentralized future, understanding the key terms of Blockchain Technology is essential.

But first what is Blockchain Technology, how does it Work, Its Applications and its potential future?, learn in this article What is Blockchain Technology? And How Does Blockchain Work? ( Blockchain Basics for Beginners: A Simple Introduction).

This ultimate blockchain glossary guide aims to simplify the Blockchain terms and provide a comprehensive overview of the fundamental concepts shaping the digital revolution. So let’s get started.

Terms Used in Blockchain, Cryptocurrency and Web3

1. Blockchain Basics:

  • Blockchain: A decentralized and distributed ledger that records transactions across a network of computers. Each block contains a list of transactions, and once added, it’s difficult to alter, ensuring transparency and security.
  • Decentralization: The distribution of control and authority across a network, eliminating the need for a central authority.
  • Consensus Mechanism: The process by which nodes in a blockchain network agree on the state of the ledger. Common mechanisms include Proof of Work (PoW) and Proof of Stake (PoS).
  • Cryptographic Hash Function: A mathematical algorithm that converts any input into a fixed-size string of characters, commonly used in blockchain for security purposes.
  • Immutable: Once data is added to the blockchain, it cannot be altered or deleted.
  • Node: A participant in the blockchain network that stores and maintains a copy of the entire blockchain.

2. Cryptocurrency Fundamentals:

  • Cryptocurrency: Digital or virtual currency that uses cryptography for security and operates on a decentralized network.
  • Bitcoin (BTC): The first and most well-known cryptocurrency, created by an unknown person or group using the pseudonym Satoshi Nakamoto.
  • Altcoin: Any cryptocurrency other than Bitcoin, such as Ethereum (ETH), Ripple (XRP), and Litecoin (LTC).
  • Wallet: A digital tool that allows users to store, receive, and send cryptocurrencies securely.
  • Private Key: A secret key known only to the owner, used to access and manage their cryptocurrency holdings.
  • Public Key: An address visible to others, used to receive cryptocurrency.
  • Market Cap: The total value of a cryptocurrency calculated by multiplying its current price by the total supply.
  • Fiat Currency: Traditional government-issued currency like the US Dollar, Euro, or Japanese Yen

3. Smart Contracts and DApps:

  • Smart Contract: Self-executing contracts with the terms of the agreement directly written into code. They automatically execute when predefined conditions are met.
  • Decentralized Applications (DApps): Applications built on blockchain technology, operating without a central authority.
  • Gas: The unit used on the Ethereum platform to measure the computational effort required to execute operations or transactions.
  • Immutable Code: Code that, once deployed on the blockchain, cannot be modified.
  • Oracles: Services that provide external information, like real-world data, to smart contracts.
  • Interoperability: The ability of different blockchain or networks to work together seamlessly.

4. Ethereum and Web3:

  • Ethereum (ETH): A decentralized platform that enables the creation of smart contracts and DApps.
  • Gas: The unit used on the Ethereum platform to measure the computational effort required to execute operations or transactions.
  • Web3: The next evolution of the internet, focused on decentralization, user privacy, and enhanced security.
  • DAO (Decentralized Autonomous Organization): An organization represented by rules encoded as a computer program that is transparent, controlled by the organization members, and not influenced by a central government.
  • Sharding: A scaling solution that partitions the blockchain into smaller pieces (shards) to improve efficiency.
  • Layer 2 (L2) Scaling: Solutions built on top of existing blockchains to increase transaction throughput and reduce costs.

5. NFTs and Tokenization:

  • Non-Fungible Token (NFT): Unique digital assets stored on a blockchain, often used to represent ownership of digital art, collectibles, or other unique items.
  • Tokenization: The process of converting rights to an asset into a digital token on a blockchain.
  • ERC-721: A standard interface for NFTs on the Ethereum blockchain, defining how they are created and interacted with.
  • Minting: The process of creating and releasing new NFTs.
  • Fractionalized NFTs: Breaking down ownership of an NFT into smaller, tradable parts.

6. Decentralized Finance (DeFi):

  • DeFi: A movement aiming to recreate traditional financial systems with blockchain technology, providing decentralized alternatives to banking, lending, and other financial services.
  • Liquidity Pool: Pools of funds used in DeFi platforms to facilitate trading and lending.
  • Yield Farming: The practice of staking or lending cryptocurrencies to earn additional tokens or rewards.
  • Flash Loan: A type of loan obtained and repaid within the same blockchain transaction, without the need for collateral.
  • Automated Market Maker (AMM): A decentralized exchange that uses algorithms to determine the price of assets and facilitate trading.

7. Consensus Mechanisms:

  • Proof of Work (PoW): A consensus mechanism requiring participants to solve complex mathematical problems to validate transactions and create new blocks.
  • Proof of Stake (PoS): A consensus mechanism where validators are chosen to create new blocks based on the amount of cryptocurrency they hold and are willing to “stake.”
  • Delegated Proof of Stake (DPoS): A variation of PoS where participants vote for a set number of delegates to validate transactions and produce blocks.
  • Byzantine Fault Tolerance (BFT): A consensus algorithm that ensures the security and consistency of a blockchain network even if some nodes fail or behave maliciously.
  • Cross-Chain: Transactions or communication that occur between different blockchain networks.

Those are the main terms used in blockchain technology but we are not limited to there, there are other numerous terms used in blockchain technology.  So before we see them remember to check also What is Blockchain Technology? And How Does Blockchain Work? ( Blockchain Basics for Beginners: A Simple Introduction).

Let’s see more blockchain technology terms.

  • Miners and digital mining

Mining involves launching new bitcoins onto the market, following Nakamoto’s protocol-defined timing, achieved through the creation of interconnected blocks.

Individuals known as “miners” undertake this responsibility, utilizing powerful computers operational 24/7 to ensure the accuracy of all transactions.

In order to validate each transaction and create blocks, miners must discover the “hash” or digital key for each block, linking it to the subsequent one. When a miner successfully finds one of these cryptographic keys, a bitcoin is “mined,” and they receive payment in the same currency.

  • Forks

Public blockchain networks derive strength from their complete decentralization, ensuring equal access to information without hierarchy.

However, as noted by Luis Garicano, a professor at the London School of Economics, this democratic feature presents a challenge: achieving consensus for change can hinder the improvement process, and any attempt to centralize for change contradicts the essence of blockchain.

  • ICOs

ICOs, or Initial Coin Offerings, serve as a method of company financing where tokens are offered instead of shares, and shareholders transact with digital coins through blockchain. However, due to the absence of regulations in this financing method, there are instances where these “tokens” may not confer ownership or genuine economic rights over the issuing company.

  • Airdrop

An event where a blockchain project distributes free tokens or coins to the community.

  • Air gapping

The act of keeping digital information or machinery isolated from unauthorised access in order to enhance security.

  • Chaffing

The deliberate act of transmitting deceptive signals among network nodes, employing fake IP addresses to ensure they only perceive information previously encountered by specific nodes.

This disrupts consensus for new data additions to the chain, rendering it challenging for 51% attacks to succeed. In this scenario, attackers aim to introduce invalid blocks, but the presence of chaffing confounds other miners, preventing the recognition of these blocks and thwarting the attack.

  • Dead coin

A project that was launched with intentions of being used as a digital currency but failed.

  • Distributed ledger

A distributed database, spanning various nodes globally, ensures decentralization and transparency. Each node holds an updated copy through consensus algorithms, fostering faster processing. Different from distributed computing, this system records data in ledgers, with the term “Distributed Ledger Technology (DLT)” often used interchangeably.

  • DYOR

Do Your Own Research; this means that all crypto investors should do their own research on a project before investing in it.

  • Entry and exit points

These are the points at which an investor decides to buy or sell a particular coin/token.

  • ERC-20

A technical standard used for smart contracts on the Ethereum blockchain which ensures that all tokens and transactions comply with certain rules (such as how many decimal points to use).

  • Fiat gateways

A cryptocurrency exchange that allows users to deposit fiat currencies such as the dollar or euro into their account for trading purposes.

  • Flippening

The moment when a cryptocurrency’s market capitalisation (or the total value of its tokens in circulation) surpasses that of another crypto.

  • FOMO

Fear Of Missing Out; the acronym that was coined to describe a phenomenon when investors buy or sell an asset based on others’ actions, causing them to miss out on more profitable opportunities.

  • Fork

A software update that is not backwards compatible with previous versions of the same cryptocurrency protocol, creating an entirely new branch from block 0.

  • FUD

Fear, Uncertainty and Doubt; the acronym that was coined for cryptosphere discussions.

  • FUDster

A person who spreads FUD (fear, uncertainty and doubt) about a specific coin or blockchain project

  • Proof of authority (PoA)

A consensus mechanism mandating validators to showcase ownership of a specific amount or type of stake before gaining access to network nodes for transaction verification. This approach has been adopted by several blockchain networks, including POA Networks (Ethereum-based) and Oyster Pearl (IOTA Tangle-based), among others.

  • Proof of burn (PoB)

A consensus algorithm requiring users to “burn” or exchange tokens by sending them to an unspendable address, serving as proof of their genuine and active participation in the network.

  • Pump and dump

The process of buying and selling a coin on the market to raise its price and attract other users, followed by profit-taking.

  • Return on investment (ROI)

The percentage of returns on an initial investment, commonly used to gauge the performance of a cryptocurrency or trading strategy. Higher values signify better results in this context.

  • Segregated witness (segwit)

Segregated Witness (SegWit) is a soft fork upgrade to the Bitcoin protocol proposed by the Bitcoin Core development team and activated in 2017. It enhances network capacity by increasing transactions per second, addresses transaction malleability issues, and reduces Unspent Transaction Output (UTXO) bloat.

  • Shilling

An individual aggressively promotes a cryptocurrency through social media or their influence, often without considering the quality or legitimacy of the coin.


As blockchain technology continues to reshape industries and redefine the way we interact with the digital world, being well-versed in the essential terms is paramount. This ultimate blockchain glossary serves as a comprehensive guide to navigate the complex and dynamic landscape of blockchain, cryptocurrency, and the emerging Web3 era. Stay informed, stay curious, and embrace the decentralized future.

NEXT READING: What is Decentralization in Blockchain Technology?, Role, Importance and difference from Centralization

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