Computer Science |Definition, Types, Facts & Everything you need to know

Computer science is the study of computation and its applications. It is a field that has revolutionized many aspects of human life, from communication and entertainment to education and health.

In this article, we will explore what computer science is, what are its main types, and what are some of the facts and achievements that make it so fascinating and important.

What is Computer Science?

Computer science is the systematic and scientific approach to solving problems using computers and algorithms.

 An algorithm is a set of rules or instructions that tell a computer how to perform a specific task.

Computers are machines that can process, store, and communicate information in (binary) form, which is a system of two symbols: 0 and 1.

Computer science is not just about programming or coding, although that is an essential part of it. It is also about understanding the principles and theories behind computation, such as logic, mathematics, data structures, complexity, cryptography, artificial intelligence, and more.

Computer science is also about designing and developing software, hardware, systems, and networks that can perform various functions and tasks.

Branches of Computer Science

Computer science is a broad and interdisciplinary field that encompasses many subfields and branches, such as:

1 》Computer engineering:

The design and construction of computer hardware and devices, such as processors, memory, circuits, sensors, etc.

2 》Software engineering:

The development and maintenance of software systems and applications, such as operating systems, databases, web browsers, games, etc.

3 )Theoretical computer science:

The study of the fundamental concepts and limits of computation, such as computability, complexity, algorithms, languages, automata, etc.

4 》Artificial intelligence:

The study and creation of systems and agents that can perform tasks that require human intelligence, such as reasoning, learning, planning, perception, natural language processing, etc.

5 》Machine learning:

The study and application of algorithms and techniques that enable computers to learn from data and experience, such as neural networks, deep learning, reinforcement learning, etc.

6 》Data science:

The study and analysis of large and complex data sets using computational methods and tools, such as statistics, visualization, data mining, etc.

5 》Computer graphics:

The study and creation of visual representations of data and objects using computers, such as images, animations, simulations, etc.

6 》Computer vision:

The study and development of systems and algorithms that can process and understand visual information, such as face recognition, object detection, scene analysis, etc.

7 》Human-computer interaction:

The study and design of interfaces and interactions between humans and computers, such as user experience, usability, accessibility, etc.

8 》Cybersecurity:

The study and practice of protecting computer systems and networks from unauthorized access, attacks, and threats, such as encryption, authentication, firewalls, etc.


The application of computer science to biological and biomedical problems, such as genome sequencing, protein structure, drug discovery, etc.

10 》Computational science:

The use of computer science to model and simulate natural and physical phenomena, such as climate, fluid dynamics, astronomy, etc.

These are just some of the examples of the many areas and domains that computer science covers and contributes to.

Computer science is a dynamic and evolving field that constantly adapts to new challenges and opportunities.

How is Computer Science Different from IT?

Computer science and information technology are both related to computers, but they have different focuses and applications.

Computer science is the study of designing and building computers and computer programs, while information technology is the study of maintaining and troubleshooting those computers and their networks, systems, and databases.

Some examples of computer science careers are software engineering, data science, artificial intelligence, and computer graphics.

Some examples of information technology careers are network administration, cybersecurity, database administration, and technical support.

Both fields have a wide range of salaries, depending on the level of education, experience, and specialization.

However, some entry-level IT jobs may not require a four-year degree, while most computer science jobs do. Therefore, it may be easier to start a career in IT than in computer science without a formal education.

If you are interested in learning more about computer science or IT, you can check out some of the courses and programs that we offer Here.

They can help you gain the skills and knowledge you need to pursue your goals in either field.

What Careers does Computer Science Offer?

Computer science is a broad and diverse field that offers many career opportunities in various sectors and industries.

Some of the common types of computer science jobs are:

Development JobsAdministration Jobs
Computer ProgrammerInformation Technology Specialist
Data ScientistDatabase Administrator
Web Optimization SpecialistSystems Analyst
Web DeveloperNetwork Administrator
Quality Assurance EngineerChief Information Officer
Business Intelligence AnalystSecurity Analyst
Systems EngineerHealth Information Technician
Product Manager
Software Engineer
Hardware Engineer
Front-End Developer
Back-End Developer
Full-Stack Developer
Mobile Developer
Video Game Developer
Computer Science careers

How Much do Computer Science Professionals Make?

The salary of computer science professionals can vary depending on several factors, such as their education level, experience, location, industry, and role.

According to the US Bureau of Labor Statistics, the median annual salary of computer scientists was $131,490 in 2024.

However, this is just one of the many possible careers in computer science. Here are some examples of other computer science jobs and their average salaries in the US, based on data from Indeed:

  • Animator: $77,506
  • Health information technician: $42,630
  • Webmaster: $57,789
  • Computer programmer: $76,526
  • Data scientist: $121,583
  • Machine learning engineer: $151,930
  • Software architect: $113,757
  • Principal software engineer: $152,929

As you can see, computer science offers a wide range of lucrative and rewarding career opportunities.

If you are interested in pursuing a degree or a certification in computer science, you can check out some of the FREE online courses and programs offered by Ternet Digital .

They cover various topics and skills in computer science, such as artificial intelligence, data science, web development, cybersecurity, and more.

What are some of the facts and achievements of Computer Science?

Computer science is a relatively young field, but it has already made remarkable progress and impact in various fields and domains.

Here are some of the facts and achievements that illustrate the importance and influence of computer science:

1. The first electronic computer, called ENIAC, was built in 1946 by John Mauchly and J. Presper Eckert.

It weighed 30 tons, occupied 1800 square feet, and consumed 150 kilowatts of power. It could perform about 5000 calculations per second.

2. The first programming language, called FORTRAN, was developed in 1957 by John Backus and his team at IBM.

 It was designed for scientific and engineering applications and is still widely used today.

3. The first computer network, called ARPANET, was created in 1969 by the US Department of Defence.

It connected four computers at different locations and enabled the exchange of data and messages. It was the precursor of the Internet.

4. The first personal computer, called Altair 8800, was released in 1975 by Micro Instrumentation and Telemetry Systems (MITS).

It was based on an Intel 8080 processor and had 256 bytes of memory. It cost $439 and required assembly by the user.

5. The first graphical user interface, called Xerox Alto, was developed in 1973 by Xerox PARC.

It featured a mouse, a keyboard, a monitor, and icons. It was the inspiration for the Apple Macintosh and Microsoft Windows.

6. The first web browser, called WorldWideWeb, was created in 1990 by Tim Berners-Lee at CERN.

It was the first software that allowed users to access and view documents on the World Wide Web, which he also invented.

7. The first search engine, called Archie, was developed in 1990 by Alan Emtage at McGill University. It was a tool that indexed and searched files on FTP servers.

It was followed by other search engines, such as Yahoo, Google, Bing, etc.

7. The first smartphone, called IBM Simon, was launched in 1994 by IBM and BellSouth. It had a touchscreen, a stylus, a calendar, a calculator, a fax, and a phone.

It cost $899 and had a battery life of one hour.

8. The first social network, called Six Degrees, was founded in 1997 by Andrew Weinreich. It allowed users to create profiles, connect with friends, and send messages.

It was followed by other social networks, such as Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, etc.

9. The first e-commerce site, called Amazon, was launched in 1995 by Jeff Bezos. It started as an online bookstore and later expanded to sell various products and services.

It is now one of the largest and most successful companies in the world.

10. The first digital assistant, called Siri, was introduced in 2011 by Apple. It is a voice-activated software that can perform various tasks and answer questions using natural language processing and artificial intelligence.

It is followed by other digital assistants, such as Google Assistant, Alexa, Cortana, etc.

11. The first self-driving car, called Waymo, was developed in 2009 by Google. It is a vehicle that can navigate and drive autonomously using sensors, cameras, maps, and machine learning.

It is currently being tested and deployed in various locations.

These are just some of the examples of the many facts and achievements that show how computer science has changed the world and continues to do so.

Computer science is a field that has endless possibilities and potential for innovation and discovery.


Computer science is the study of computation and its applications. It is a field that has revolutionized many aspects of human life, from communication and entertainment to education and health.

It is a broad and interdisciplinary field that encompasses many subfields and branches, such as computer engineering, software engineering, theoretical computer science, artificial intelligence, machine learning, data science, computer graphics, computer vision, human-computer interaction, cybersecurity, bioinformatics, computational science, and more.

Computer science is a dynamic and evolving field that constantly adapts to new challenges and opportunities. Computer science is a field that has changed the world and will continue to do so.


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